German ,Sprechtheater‘ and the Transformation of Theatrical Public Spheres
Oberkrome, Friederike; Roth, Hans; Warstat, Matthias – 2019
The contribution will start from reflections on the somewhat strange, no longer quite common German concept of ‘Sprechtheater’ (speech theater, spoken theater), which cannot be easily translated into English. Regularly, it serves as a kind of umbrella term for different types of dramatic theater, as they are distinguishable from opera, musical, and dance. Historically, though, the concept is closely connected to the development of a ‘national theater’ in Germany. In the first part of the chapter, we will examine how the affectively highly charged constructions (or fictions) linked to the idea of a ‘national theater’ were related to language and speech. This special relationship was first challenged no sooner than in the second half of the 19th century with Richard Wagner’s also highly nationalistic vision of a theatrical ‘Gesamtkunstwerk’. Although from then on many projects of the historical avant-garde have constantly attacked the idea of a ‘Sprechtheater’, the concept has been preserved in Germany until far into the 20th century, particularly in rather bourgeois, identity-oriented theater discourses. In the second part, we will discuss which conflicts, but also new spaces of experience the traditional relationship of theater and language can create nowadays in the context of theater and migration. So this part will focus on recent changes and diversifications of the theatrical public sphere. On the one hand, the importance of language for the theater is still frequently used to legitimize the rejection of applicants with other first languages from the German-acting schools. On the other hand, new forms of theater have emerged, in which the experience of multilinguality takes center stage and draws on the audience’s various relationships to the connection of language, identity, and memory.